International Environment Forum - A Bahá'í inspired organization for environment and sustainability http://iefworld.org/index.php/rss.xml en Leaves - October IEF newsletter is available http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/255 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Leaves - October IEF newsletter is available</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">13. October 2019 - 19:08</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Read on line: <a href="/newslt124"><strong><em>Leaves</em></strong> 21(10) October 2019</a> light text version with fewer illustrations.<br /> Download as a <a href="/fl/IEF_Leaves191015.pdf">pdf version</a> [1.2 mb].</p> <table background="/gr/BLEAF1.JPG" style="background-color: rgb(0, 153, 0); width: 100%; height: 55px; text-align: left; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Sun, 13 Oct 2019 16:08:08 +0000 admin 255 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/255#comments IPCC report on oceans and cryosphere http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/1007 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">IPCC report on oceans and cryosphere</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">25. September 2019 - 23:58</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Climate change</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/286" hreflang="en">Oceans</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/287" hreflang="en">Cryosphere</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div style="text-align: center;"> <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">The IPCC report on oceans and cryosphere</h2> <p>Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change<br /> Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC)<br /> IPCC Press Release 2019/31/PR 25 September 2019</p> </div> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>MONACO, 25 September 2019<br /> The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report highlights the urgency of prioritizing timely, ambitious and coordinated action to address unprecedented and enduring changes in the ocean and cryosphere. The report reveals the benefits of ambitious and effective adaptation for sustainable development and, conversely, the escalating costs and risks of delayed action.</p> <p>The ocean and the cryosphere – the frozen parts of the planet – play a critical role for life on Earth. A total of 670 million people in high mountain regions and 680 million people in low-lying coastal zones depend directly on these systems. Four million people live permanently in the Arctic region, and small island developing states are home to 65 million people.</p> <p>Global warming has already reached 1°C above the pre-industrial level, due to past and current greenhouse gas emissions. There is overwhelming evidence that this is resulting in profound consequences for ecosystems and people. The ocean is warmer, more acidic and less productive. Melting glaciers and ice sheets are causing sea level rise, and coastal extreme events are becoming more severe.</p> <p>The IPCC <i>Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate</i>, approved on 24 September 2019 by the 195 IPCC member governments, provides new evidence for the benefits of limiting global warming to the lowest possible level – in line with the goal that governments set themselves in the 2015 Paris Agreement. Urgently reducing greenhouse gas emissions limits the scale of ocean and cryosphere changes. Ecosystems and the livelihoods that depend on them can be preserved.</p> <p>“The open sea, the Arctic, the Antarctic and the high mountains may seem far away to many people,” said Hoesung Lee, Chair of the IPCC. “But we depend on them and are influenced by them directly and indirectly in many ways – for weather and climate, for food and water, for energy, trade, transport, recreation and tourism, for health and wellbeing, for culture and identity.” “If we reduce emissions sharply, consequences for people and their livelihoods will still be challenging, but potentially more manageable for those who are most vulnerable,” Lee said. “We increase our ability to build resilience and there will be more benefits for sustainable development.”</p> <p>Knowledge assessed in the report outlines climate-related risks and challenges that people around the world are exposed to today and that future generations will face. It presents options to adapt to changes that can no longer be avoided, manage related risks and build resilience for a sustainable future. The assessment shows that adaptation depends on the capacity of individuals and communities and the resources available to them.</p> <p>More than 100 authors from 36 countries assessed the latest scientific literature related to the ocean and cryosphere in a changing climate for the report, referencing about 7,000 scientific publications. The IPCC Special Report is a key scientific input for world leaders gathering in forthcoming climate and environment negotiations, such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference (COP25) in Chile in December.</p> <p>“The world’s ocean and cryosphere have been ‘taking the heat’ from climate change for decades, and consequences for nature and humanity are sweeping and severe,” said Ko Barrett, Vice-Chair of the IPCC. “The rapid changes to the ocean and the frozen parts of our planet are forcing people from coastal cities to remote Arctic communities to fundamentally alter their ways of life,” she added. “By understanding the causes of these changes and the resulting impacts, and by evaluating options that are available, we can strengthen our ability to adapt,” she said. “The <i>Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate</i> provides the knowledge that facilitates these kinds of decisions.”</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Major changes in high mountains affecting downstream communities</h3> <p>People in mountain regions are increasingly exposed to hazards and changes in water availability, the report said. Glaciers, snow, ice and permafrost are declining and will continue to do so. This is projected to increase hazards for people, for example through landslides, avalanches, rock falls and floods. Smaller glaciers found for example in Europe, eastern Africa, the tropical Andes and Indonesia are projected to lose more than 80% of their current ice mass by 2100 under high emission scenarios. The retreat of the high mountain cryosphere will continue to adversely affect recreational activities, tourism, and cultural assets. As mountain glaciers retreat, they are also altering water availability and quality downstream, with implications for many sectors such as agriculture and hydropower.</p> <p>“Changes in water availability will not just affect people in these high mountain regions, but also communities much further downstream,” said Panmao Zhai, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group I. “Limiting warming would help them adapt to changes in water supplies in mountain regions and beyond, and limit risks related to mountain hazards,” he said. “Integrated water management and transboundary cooperation provides opportunities to address impacts of these changes in water resources.”</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Melting ice, rising seas</h3> <p>Glaciers and ice sheets in polar and mountain regions are losing mass, contributing to an increasing rate of sea level rise, together with expansion of the warmer ocean. While sea level has risen globally by around 15 cm during the 20th century, it is currently rising more than twice as fast – 3.6mm per year – and accelerating, the report showed. Sea level will continue to rise for centuries. It could reach around 30-60 cm by 2100 even if greenhouse gas emissions are sharply reduced and global warming is limited to well below 2°C, but around 60-110 cm if greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase strongly.</p> <p>“In recent decades the rate of sea level rise has accelerated, due to growing water inputs from ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, in addition to the contribution of meltwater from glaciers and the expansion of warmer sea waters,” said Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group I. “This new assessment has also revised upwards the projected contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet to sea level rise by 2100 in the case of high emissions of greenhouse gases,” she said. “The wide range of sea level projections for 2100 and beyond is related to how ice sheets will react to warming, especially in Antarctica, with major uncertainties still remaining.”</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">More frequent extreme sea level events</h3> <p>Sea level rise will increase the frequency of extreme sea level events, which occur for example during high tides and intense storms. Indications are that with any degree of additional warming, events that occurred once per century in the past will occur every year by mid-century in many regions, increasing risks for many low-lying coastal cities and small islands. Without major investments in adaptation, they would be exposed to escalating flood risks, the report shows.</p> <p>Some island nations are likely to become uninhabitable due to climate-related ocean and cryosphere change, the report said, but habitability thresholds remain extremely difficult to assess. Increases in tropical cyclone winds and rainfall are exacerbating extreme sea level events and coastal hazards. Hazards will be further intensified by an increase in the average intensity, magnitude of storm surge and precipitation rates of tropical cyclones, especially if greenhouse gas emissions remain high.</p> <p>“Various adaptation approaches are already being implemented, often in response to flooding events, and the report highlights the diversity of options available for each context to develop integrated responses anticipating the full scale of future sea level rise,” said Masson-Delmotte.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Changing ocean ecosystems</h3> <p>Warming and changes in ocean chemistry are already disrupting species throughout the ocean food web, with impacts on marine ecosystems and people that depend on them, the report said. To date, the ocean has taken up more than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system. By 2100, the ocean will take up 2 to 4 times more heat than between 1970 and the present if global warming is limited to 2°C, and up to 5 to 7 times more at higher emissions. Ocean warming reduces mixing between water layers and, as a consequence, the supply of oxygen and nutrients for marine life.</p> <p>Marine heat waves have doubled in frequency since 1982 and are increasing in intensity. They are projected to further increase in frequency, duration, extent and intensity. Their frequency will be 20 times higher at 2°C warming, compared to pre-industrial levels. They would occur 50 times more often if emissions continue to increase strongly.</p> <p>The ocean has taken up between 20 to 30% of human-induced carbon dioxide emissions since the 1980s, causing ocean acidification. Continued carbon uptake by the ocean by 2100 will exacerbate ocean acidification. Ocean warming and acidification, loss of oxygen and changes in nutrient supplies, are already affecting the distribution and abundance of marine life in coastal areas, in the open ocean and at the seafloor. Shifts in the distribution of fish populations have reduced the global catch potential. In the future, some regions, notably tropical oceans, will see further decreases, but there will be increases in others, such as the Arctic. Communities that depend highly on seafood may face risks to nutritional health and food security.</p> <p>“Cutting greenhouse gas emissions will limit impacts on ocean ecosystems that provide us with food, support our health and shape our cultures,” said Hans-Otto Pörtner, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II. “Reducing other pressures such as pollution will further help marine life deal with changes in their environment, while enabling a more resilient ocean.” “Policy frameworks, for example for fisheries management and marine-protected areas, offer opportunities for communities to adapt to changes and minimize risks for our livelihoods,” he added.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Declining Arctic sea ice, thawing permafrost</h3> <p>The extent of Arctic sea ice is declining in every month of the year, and it is getting thinner. If global warming is stabilized at 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, the Arctic ocean would only be ice-free in September – the month with the least ice – once in every hundred years. For global warming of 2°C, this would occur up to one year in three. Some people living in the Arctic, especially indigenous peoples, have already adjusted their traveling and hunting activities to the seasonality and safety of land, ice and snow conditions, and some coastal communities have planned for relocation. Their success in adapting depends on funding, capacities, and institutional support, the report shows.</p> <p>Permafrost ground that has been frozen for many years is warming and thawing and widespread permafrost thaw is projected to occur in the 21st century. Even if global warming is limited to well below 2°C, around 25% of the near-surface (3-4 meter depth) permafrost will thaw by 2100. If greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase strongly, there is a potential that around 70% near-surface permafrost could be lost. Arctic and boreal permafrost hold large amounts of organic carbon, almost twice the carbon in the atmosphere, and have the potential to significantly increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere if they thaw. It is unclear whether there is already a net release of carbon dioxide or methane due to the ongoing thaw of the Arctic permafrost. In the future, increased plant growth can increase the storage of carbon in soils and offset carbon release from permafrost thaw, but not at the scale of large changes on the long term. Wild fires are disturbing ecosystems in most tundra and boreal as well as mountain regions.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Knowledge for urgent action</h3> <p>The report finds that strongly reducing greenhouse gas emissions, protecting and restoring ecosystems, and carefully managing the use of natural resources would make it possible to preserve the ocean and cryosphere as a source of opportunities that support adaptation to future changes, limit risks to livelihoods and offer multiple additional societal benefits.</p> <p>“We will only be able to keep global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels if we effect unprecedented transitions in all aspects of society, including energy, land and ecosystems, urban and infrastructure as well as industry. The ambitious climate policies and emissions reductions required to deliver the Paris Agreement will also protect the ocean and cryosphere – and ultimately sustain all life on Earth,” said Debra Roberts, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II.</p> <p>SROCC provides the best available scientific knowledge to empower governments and communities to take action, embedding that scientific knowledge on unavoidable change and plausible futures into their own context, to limit the scale of risks and climate impacts. The report gives evidence of the benefits of combining scientific with local and indigenous knowledge to develop suitable options to manage climate change risks and enhance resilience. This is the first IPCC report that highlights the importance of education to enhance climate change, ocean and cryosphere literacy.</p> <p>“The more decisively and the earlier we act, the more able we will be to address unavoidable changes, manage risks, improve our lives and achieve sustainability for ecosystems and people around the world – today and in the future,” Roberts said.</p> <hr /> <p>For the Headline Statements from the SROCC Summary for Policy Makers, <a href="/node/1008">click here</a></p> <p><small>Source: <a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/3/2019/09/SROCC_PressRelease_EN.pdf">https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/3/2019/09/SROCC_PressRele…</a></small></p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="66" src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" width="142" /></p> <p><small>Last updated 25 September 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Wed, 25 Sep 2019 20:58:11 +0000 admin 1007 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/1007#comments IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, Headline Statements http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/1008 <span property="schema:name" class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, Headline Statements</span> <span rel="schema:author" class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span property="schema:dateCreated" content="2019-09-25T20:03:01+00:00" class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">25. September 2019 - 23:03</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Climate change</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/286" hreflang="en">Oceans</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/287" hreflang="en">Cryosphere</a></div> </div> <div property="schema:text" class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate<br /> Summary for Policymakers Headline Statements</h2> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <h2 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">A. OBSERVED CHANGES AND IMPACTS</h2> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Observed Physical Changes</h3> <p>A1. Over the last decades, global warming has led to widespread shrinking of the cryosphere, with mass loss from ice sheets and glaciers, reductions in snow cover and Arctic sea ice extent and thickness, and increased permafrost temperature.</p> <p>A2. It is virtually certain that the global ocean has warmed unabated since 1970 and has taken up more than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system. Since 1993, the rate of ocean warming has more than doubled. Marine heatwaves have very likely doubled in frequency since 1982 and are increasing in intensity. By absorbing more CO2, the ocean has undergone increasing surface acidification. A loss of oxygen has occurred from the surface to 1000 m.</p> <p>A3. Global mean sea level (GMSL) is rising, with acceleration in recent decades due to increasing rates of ice loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, as well as continued glacier mass loss and ocean thermal expansion. Increases in tropical cyclone winds and rainfall, and increases in extreme waves, combined with relative sea level rise, exacerbate extreme sea level events and coastal hazards.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Observed Impacts on Ecosystems</h3> <p>A4. Cryospheric and associated hydrological changes have impacted terrestrial and appearance of land previously covered by ice, changes in snow cover, and thawing permafrost. These changes have contributed to changing the seasonal activities, abundance and distribution of ecologically, culturally, and economically important plant and animal species, ecological disturbances, and ecosystem functioning.</p> <p>A5. Since about 1950 many marine species across various groups have undergone shifts in geographical range and seasonal activities in response to ocean warming, sea ice change and biogeochemical changes, such as oxygen loss, to their habitats. This has resulted in shifts in species composition, abundance and biomass production of ecosystems, from the equator to the poles. Altered interactions between species have caused cascading impacts on ecosystem structure and functioning. In some marine ecosystems species are impacted by both the effects of fishing and climate changes.</p> <p>A6. Coastal ecosystems are affected by ocean warming, including intensified marine heatwaves, acidification, loss of oxygen, salinity intrusion and sea level rise, in combination with adverse effects from human activities on ocean and land. Impacts are already observed on habitat area and biodiversity, as well as ecosystem functioning and services.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Observed Impacts on People and Ecosystem Services</h3> <p>A7. Since the mid-20th century, the shrinking cryosphere in the Arctic and high-mountain areas has led to predominantly negative impacts on food security, water resources, water quality, livelihoods, health and well-being, infrastructure, transportation, tourism and recreation, as well as culture of human societies, particularly for Indigenous peoples. Costs and benefits have been unequally distributed across populations and regions. Adaptation efforts have benefited from the inclusion of Indigenous knowledge and local knowledge.</p> <p>A8. Changes in the ocean have impacted marine ecosystems and ecosystem services with regionally diverse outcomes, challenging their governance. Both positive and negative impacts result for food security through fisheries, local cultures and livelihoods, and tourism and recreation. The impacts on ecosystem services have negative consequences for health and well-being, and for Indigenous peoples and local communities dependent on fisheries.</p> <p>A9. Coastal communities are exposed to multiple climate-related hazards, including tropical cyclones, extreme sea levels and flooding, marine heatwaves, sea ice loss, and permafrost thaw. A diversity of responses has been implemented worldwide, mostly after extreme events, but also some in anticipation of future sea level rise, e.g., in the case of large infrastructure.</p> <h2 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">B. PROJECTED CHANGES AND RISKS</h2> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Projected Physical Changes</h3> <p>B1. Global-scale glacier mass loss, permafrost thaw, and decline in snow cover and Arctic sea ice extent are projected to continue in the near-term (2031–2050) due to surface air temperature increases, with unavoidable consequences for river runoff and local hazards. The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets are projected to lose mass at an increasing rate throughout the 21st century and beyond. The rates and magnitudes of these cryospheric changes are projected to increase further in the second half of the 21st century in a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario. Strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades are projected to reduce further changes after 2050.</p> <p>B2. Over the 21st century, the ocean is projected to transition to unprecedented conditions with increased temperatures, greater upper ocean stratification, further acidification, oxygen decline, and altered net primary production. Marine heatwaves and extreme El Niño and La Niña events are projected to become more frequent. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is projected to weaken. The rates and magnitudes of these changes will be smaller under scenarios with low greenhouse gas emissions.</p> <p>B3. Sea level continues to rise at an increasing rate. Extreme sea level events that are historically rare (once per century in the recent past) are projected to occur frequently (at least once per year) at many locations by 2050 in all RCP scenarios, especially in tropical regions. The increasing frequency of high water levels can have severe impacts in many locations depending on exposure. Sea level rise is projected to continue beyond 2100 in all RCP scenarios. For a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5), projections of global sea level rise by 2100 are greater than in AR5 due to a larger contribution from the Antarctic Ice Sheet. In coming centuries under RCP8.5, sea level rise is projected to exceed rates of several centimetres per year resulting in multi-metre rise, while for RCP2.6 sea level rise is projected to be limited to around 1m in 2300. Extreme sea levels and coastal hazards will be exacerbated by projected increases in tropical cyclone intensity and precipitation. Projected changes in waves and tides vary locally in whether they amplify or ameliorate these hazards.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Projected Risks for Ecosystems</h3> <p>B.4 Future land cryosphere changes will continue to alter terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in high-mountain and polar regions with major shifts in species distributions resulting in changes in ecosystem structure and functioning, and eventual loss of globally unique biodiversity. Wildfire is projected to increase significantly for the rest of this century across most tundra and boreal regions, and also in some mountain regions.</p> <p>B5. A decrease in global biomass of marine animal communities, their production, and fisheries catch potential, and a shift in species composition are projected over the 21st century in ocean ecosystems from the surface to the deep seafloor under all emission scenarios. The rate and magnitude of decline are projected to be highest in the tropics, whereas impacts remain diverse in polar regions and increase for high emission scenarios. Ocean acidification, oxygen loss and reduced sea ice extent as well as non-climatic human activities have the potential to exacerbate these warming-induced ecosystem impacts.</p> <p>B6. Risks of severe impacts on biodiversity, structure and function of coastal ecosystems are projected to be higher for elevated temperatures under high compared to low emissions scenarios in the 21st century and beyond. Projected ecosystem responses include losses of species habitat and diversity, and degradation of ecosystem functions. The capacity of organisms and ecosystems to adjust and adapt is higher at lower emissions scenarios. For sensitive ecosystems such as seagrass meadows and kelp forests, high risks are projected if global warming exceeds 2°C above pre-industrial temperature, combined with other climate-related hazards. Warm water corals are at high risk already and are projected to transition to very high risk even if global warming is limited to 1.5°C.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Projected Risks for People and Ecosystem Services</h3> <p>B7. Future cryosphere changes on land are projected to affect water resources and their uses, such as hydropower and irrigated agriculture in and downstream of high-mountain areas, as well as livelihoods in the Arctic. Changes in floods, avalanches, landslides, and ground destabilization are projected to increase risk for infrastructure, cultural, tourism, and recreational assets.</p> <p>B8. Future shifts in fish distribution and decreases in their abundance and fisheries catch potential due to climate change are projected to affect income, livelihoods, and food security of marine resource-dependent communities. Long-term loss and degradation of marine ecosystems compromises the ocean’s role in cultural, recreational, and intrinsic values important for human identity and well-being.</p> <p>B9. Increased mean and extreme sea level, alongside ocean warming and acidification, are projected to exacerbate risks for human communities in low-lying coastal areas. In Arctic human communities without rapid land uplift, and in urban atoll islands, risks are projected to be moderate to high even under a low emissions scenario (RCP2.6), including reaching adaptation limits. Under a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5), delta regions and resource rich coastal cities are projected to experience moderate to high risk levels after 2050 under current adaptation. Ambitious adaptation including transformative governance is expected to reduce risk, but with context-specific benefits.</p> <h2 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">C. IMPLEMENTING RESPONSES TO OCEAN AND CRYOSPHERE CHANGE</h2> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Challenges</h3> <p>C1. Impacts of climate-related changes in the ocean and cryosphere increasingly challenge current governance efforts to develop and implement adaptation responses from local to global scales, and in some cases pushing them to their limits. People with the highest exposure and vulnerability are often those with lowest capacity to respond.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Strengthening Response Options</h3> <p>C2. The far-reaching services and options provided by ocean and cryosphere-related ecosystems can be supported by protection, restoration, precautionary ecosystem-based management of renewable resource use, and the reduction of pollution and other stressors. Integrated water management and ecosystem-based adaptation approaches lower climate risks locally and provide multiple societal benefits. However, ecological, financial, ecosystem-based adaptation will only be effective under the lowest levels of warming.</p> <p>C3. Coastal communities face challenging choices in crafting context-specific and integrated responses to sea level rise that balance costs, benefits and trade-offs of available options and that can be adjusted over time. All types of options, including protection, accommodation, ecosystem-based adaptation, coastal advance and retreat, wherever possible, can play important roles in such integrated responses.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Enabling Conditions</h3> <p>C4. Enabling climate resilience and sustainable development depends critically on urgent and ambitious emissions reductions coupled with coordinated sustained and increasingly ambitious adaptation actions. Key enablers for implementing effective responses to climate-related changes in the ocean and cryosphere include intensifying cooperation and coordination among governing authorities across spatial scales and planning horizons. Education and climate literacy, monitoring and forecasting, use of all available knowledge sources, sharing of data, information and knowledge, finance, addressing social vulnerability and equity, and institutional support are also essential. Such investments enable capacity-building, social learning, and participation in context-specific adaptation, as well as the negotiation of trade-offs and realisation of co-benefits in reducing short-term risks and building long-term resilience and sustainability.</p> <p>This report reflects the state of science for ocean and cryosphere for low levels of global warming (1.5°C), as also assessed in earlier IPCC and IPBES reports.</p> <p><small>Source: <a href="https://report.ipcc.ch/srocc/pdf/SROCC_SPM_HeadlineStatements.pdf">https://report.ipcc.ch/srocc/pdf/SROCC_SPM_HeadlineStatements.pdf</a>. September 2019. Confidence levels and section references have been removed to make the text more readable.</small></p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="66" src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" width="142" /></p> <p><small>Last updated 25 September 2019</small></p> </div> </div> Wed, 25 Sep 2019 20:03:01 +0000 admin 1008 at http://iefworld.org Look to the ocean for climate change solutions http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/1002 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Look to the ocean for climate change solutions</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">24. September 2019 - 18:37</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Climate change</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/286" hreflang="en">Oceans</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div style="text-align: center;"> <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);"> Look to the ocean for climate change solutions</h2> <p>Opinion by Erna Solberg and Tommy Remengesau Jr. (*)<br> CNN, 23 September 2019<br> <small>Source: <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2019/09/23/opinions/un-ocean-climate-change-solutions-solberg-remengesau/index.html">https://edition.cnn.com/2019/09/23/opinions/un-ocean-climate-change-sol…</a></small> </p> </div> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>Humanity is exacting a terrible toll on the ocean. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will publish its Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate later this week. Its overarching message will be that global warming, combined with the negative impacts of numerous other human activities, is devastating our ocean, with alarming declines in fish stocks, the death of our reefs, and sea level rise that could displace hundreds of millions of people. But there is a glimmer of hope -- there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the ocean can be a potent force in stabilizing the climate and building a secure future for everyone.</p> <p>Ocean-based climate solutions could deliver as much as 21% of the emissions reductions needed to limit global warming to no more than 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These reductions could amount to 11.8 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent, or CO2e -- a standard unit that measures the impact of greenhouse gases in relation to the effects of CO2. This figure is greater than the current emissions from all coal-fired power plants worldwide.</p> <p>These are the key figures from a new report released today, commissioned by the <a href="https://www.oceanpanel.org/">High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy</a> composed of 14 prime ministers and presidents, which we are proud to chair. It demonstrates in detail, for the first time, how a sustainable ocean economy could play a much bigger role than we previously thought in shrinking our carbon footprint, achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement, and delivering on the Sustainable Development Goals set forth by the UN in 2015.</p> <p>Given the report's findings, the High Level Panel is launching a Call to Ocean-Climate Action at the U.N. Climate Action Summit in New York today. The call presents a list of five actions we can take to boost ocean health and mitigate the climate crisis.</p> <p>The first thing we should do is scale up ocean-based renewable energy (such as offshore wind turbines and new technologies to harness the energy of waves and tides). As an alternative to fossil fuels, this has the potential to cut the most emissions -- as much as 5.4 gigatons of CO2e annually by 2050. That's the equivalent of taking over a billion cars off the road for a year.</p> <p>We also need to ramp up our ambitions to decarbonize shipping and marine transport; fortunately, many of the solutions to do this already exist. It is also crucial to protect and restore mangroves, seagrasses, salt marshes, and other coastal and marine ecosystems that face a huge threat from over-development. Doing so would prevent significant quantities of greenhouse gases from entering the atmosphere by increasing nature's capacity to sequester carbon. Additionally, developing low-carbon sources of protein from the ocean -- like seafood, seaweeds and kelp -- can provide a healthy and sustainable diet for future populations while easing emissions from land-based food production.</p> <p>We have the available tools to start implementing these ocean-based climate actions now.</p> <p>To win the fight against climate change, we need all hands on deck -- on land and sea. We are strongly urging other leaders around the world to swiftly implement these actions to secure a healthy, low-carbon and climate-resilient future for our ocean.</p> <p>Until now, our ocean has played a relatively minor role in national climate plans and strategies. The actions outlined in our new report offer exciting new opportunities to fight the climate crisis. All governments should incorporate ocean-based solutions in their national climate commitments in 2020, and in their actions to meet the Sustainable Development Goals. Let's pull together and seize this opportunity to save our climate by transforming the way we interact with our ocean.</p> <p>As the leaders of Norway and Palau -- two countries where the vitality of the ocean is critical -- we understand how the climate crisis affects our citizens, along with the rest of the world. There is nowhere to hide; the impacts of the climate emergency will be felt from the deepest ocean ravines to the highest mountaintops; from the small islands in the middle of the Pacific, to the largest nations on every continent.</p> <p>The ocean is becoming increasingly hotter and more acidic, which threatens all life on our planet. But this story need not end in tragedy. The ocean can be a vibrant source of inspiration and hope, as well as a powerful partner in the fight to turn the tide against the climate crisis. It is well within our capacity to build a sustainable ocean economy that benefits both nature and humanity -- but we must act now before it is too late.</p> <hr> <p>(*) Erna Solberg is the prime minister of Norway. Tommy Remengesau Jr. is the president of Palau. The views expressed in this commentary belong to the authors.</p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" height="66" width="142"></p> <p><small>Last updated 24 September 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Tue, 24 Sep 2019 15:37:22 +0000 admin 1002 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/1002#comments Climate change: Impacts 'accelerating' as leaders gather for UN talks http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/1001 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Climate change: Impacts &#039;accelerating&#039; as leaders gather for UN talks</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">24. September 2019 - 18:28</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Climate change</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div style="text-align: center;"> <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Climate change: Impacts 'accelerating' as leaders gather for UN talks</h2> <p>By Matt McGrath, Environment correspondent - BBC <small>Source: <a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-49773869">https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-49773869</a></small></p> </div> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>The signs and impacts of global warming are speeding up, the latest science on climate change, published ahead of key UN talks in New York, says. The data, compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), says the five-year period from 2014 to 2019 is the warmest on record. Sea-level rise has accelerated significantly over the same period, as CO2 emissions have hit new highs. The WMO says carbon-cutting efforts have to be intensified immediately.</p> <p>The climate statement is a pull-together of the latest science on the causes and growing impacts of unprecedented levels of warming seen in recent years. Recognising that global temperatures have risen by 1.1 degrees C since 1850, the paper notes they have gone up by 0.2C between 2011 and 2015. This is as a result of burgeoning emissions of carbon, with the amount of the gas going into the atmosphere between 2015 and 2019 growing by 20% compared with the previous five years.</p> <p>Perhaps most worrying of all is the data on sea-level rise. The average rate of rise since 1993 until now is 3.2mm per year. However, from May 2014 to 2019 the rise has increased to 5mm per year. The 10-year period from 2007-2016 saw an average of about 4mm per year.</p> <p>"Sea-level rise has accelerated and we are concerned that an abrupt decline in the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, which will exacerbate future rise," said WMO secretary general Petteri Taalas.</p> <p>"As we have seen this year with tragic effect in the Bahamas and Mozambique, sea-level rise and intense tropical storms led to humanitarian and economic catastrophes."</p> <p>The report also highlights the threats to the oceans, with more than 90% of the excess heat caused by climate change ending up in the waters. The WMO analysis says 2018 had the highest ocean heat content values on record.</p> <p>The study underlines the fact that wherever you look on the planet right now, the story is the same: human-induced warming is impacting the scale and intensity of extreme weather events such as heatwaves and wildfires.</p> <p>"Climate change due to us is accelerating and on a very dangerous course," said Prof Brian Hoskins, chair of the Grantham Institute, Imperial College London, and professor of meteorology, University of Reading. "We should listen to the loud cry coming from the schoolchildren. There is an emergency - one for action in both rapidly reducing our greenhouse gas emissions towards zero and adapting to the inevitable changes in climate."</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">'No fancy speeches'</h3> <p>The WMO report is meant to inform the special UN summit on climate change taking place in New York on Monday.</p> <p>A range of political leaders will attend the one-day event, which is designed to be about action and not words, according to UN secretary general António Guterres. "I told leaders not to come with fancy speeches, but with concrete commitments," he said ahead of the meeting. "People want solutions, commitments and action. I expect there will be an announcement and unveiling of a number of meaningful plans on dramatically reducing emissions during the next decade, and on reaching carbon neutrality by 2050."</p> <p><a href="/node/1000">Greta Thunberg</a> and other youth activists, fresh from marching on the streets of New York on Friday, will speak at the opening of the meeting. About 60 heads of state are expected to follow, with countries expected to announce new actions to limit the causes of warming or to speak on initiatives developed by a coalition of nations. While China, India, France, Germany and the UK will speak at the meeting, there is no place on the podium for Japan or Australia.</p> <p>Mr Guterres has asked that as well as committing to net-zero emissions by 2050, countries should reduce subsidies for fossil fuels and stop building new coal-fired power stations. The question of coal has led to the barring of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Australia's Scott Morrison. The US, Brazil and Saudi Arabia will also not be taking part.</p> <p>The success of the special summit remains in the balance - what isn't in question is the urgency of action and the fact that delay means more difficult decisions down the line. "It is highly important that we reduce greenhouse gas emissions, notably from energy production, industry and transport. This is critical if we are to mitigate climate change and meet the targets set out in the Paris Agreement," said Petteri Taalas from the WMO. "To stop a global temperature increase of more than 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels, the level of ambition needs to be tripled. And to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees, it needs to be multiplied by five," he said.</p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="66" src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" width="142" /></p> <p><small>Last updated 24 September 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Tue, 24 Sep 2019 15:28:01 +0000 admin 1001 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/1001#comments Greta Thunberg at the UN Climate Action Summit http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/1000 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Greta Thunberg at the UN Climate Action Summit</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">24. September 2019 - 18:22</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Climate change</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div style="text-align: center;"> <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Greta Thunberg at the UN Climate Action Summit</h2> <p>New York, 23 September 2019</p> </div> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>This is all wrong. I shouldn’t be standing here. I should be back in school on the other side of the ocean. Yet you all come to me for hope? How dare you! You have stolen my dreams and my childhood with your empty words. And yet I’m one of the lucky ones. People are suffering. People are dying. Entire ecosystems are collapsing. We are in the beginning of a mass extinction. And all you can talk about is money and fairytales of eternal economic growth. How dare you!</p> <p>For more than 30 years the science has been crystal clear. How dare you continue to look away, and come here saying that you are doing enough, when the politics and solutions needed are still nowhere in sight.</p> <p>You say you “hear” us and that you understand the urgency. But no matter how sad and angry I am, I don’t want to believe that. Because if you fully understood the situation and still kept on failing to act, then you would be evil. And I refuse to believe that.</p> <p>The popular idea of cutting our emissions in half in 10 years only gives us a 50% chance of staying below 1.5C degrees, and the risk of setting off irreversible chain reactions beyond human control.</p> <p>Maybe 50% is acceptable to you. But those numbers don’t include tipping points, most feedback loops, additional warming hidden by toxic air pollution or the aspects of justice and equity. They also rely on my and my children’s generation sucking hundreds of billions of tonnes of your CO2 out of the air with technologies that barely exist. So a 50% risk is simply not acceptable to us – we who have to live with the consequences.</p> <p>To have a 67% chance of staying below a 1.5C global temperature rise – the best odds given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – the world had 420 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide left to emit back on 1 January 2018. Today that figure is already down to less than 350 gigatonnes. How dare you pretend that this can be solved with business-as-usual and some technical solutions. With today’s emissions levels, that remaining CO2 budget will be entirely gone in less than eight and a half years.</p> <p>There will not be any solutions or plans presented in line with these figures today. Because these numbers are too uncomfortable. And you are still not mature enough to tell it like it is.</p> <p>You are failing us. But the young people are starting to understand your betrayal. The eyes of all future generations are upon you. And if you choose to fail us I say we will never forgive you. We will not let you get away with this. Right here, right now is where we draw the line. The world is waking up. And change is coming, whether you like it or not.</p> <p>Source: <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/sep/23/world-leaders-generation-climate-breakdown-greta-thunberg">https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/sep/23/world-leaders-gen…</a></p> <p>VIDEO: <a href="http://webtv.un.org/meetings-events/security-council/americas/watch/greta-thunberg-young-climate-activist-at-the-opening-of-the-climate-action-summit-2019/6088742229001/">http://webtv.un.org/meetings-events/security-council/americas/watch/gre…</a> or <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v33ro5lGHQg">https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v33ro5lGHQg</a></p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="66" src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" width="142" /></p> <p><small>Last updated 24 September 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Tue, 24 Sep 2019 15:22:38 +0000 admin 1000 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/1000#comments To Address Climate Change, Ensure Coherence Between Principle and Action http://iefworld.org/index.php/2019bic_climate_coherence <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">To Address Climate Change, Ensure Coherence Between Principle and Action</span> <div class="field field--name-field-year field--type-integer field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Year</div> <div class="field__item">2019</div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">20. September 2019 - 18:41</span> Fri, 20 Sep 2019 15:41:51 +0000 admin 1003 at http://iefworld.org The many dimensions of poverty http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/996 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">The many dimensions of poverty</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">18. September 2019 - 12:22</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/149" hreflang="en">Poverty</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/index.php/taxonomy/term/241" hreflang="en">Sustainable Development Goals</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div style="text-align: center;"> <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);"> The many dimensions of poverty</h2> <p>UNDP Multidimensional Poverty Index 2019 </p> </div> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>The UN 2030 Agenda aims to leave no one behind, and the Sustainable Development Goals include eliminating poverty (goal 1) and reducing inequalities (goal 10). This requires going behind average statistics and data, especially simple income data, to understand the multiple dimensions of poverty and deprivation, who are the victims, and what is being done or can be done to help them to rise out of poverty. UNDP has taken up the challenge. </p> <p>The <b>2019 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index</b> (MPI) data and publication "<i>Illuminating Inequalities</i>" released on 11 July 2019 shed light on the number of people experiencing poverty at regional, national and subnational levels, and reveal inequalities across countries and among the poor themselves.</p> <p>Jointly developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) at the University of Oxford, the 2019 global MPI offers data for 101 countries, covering 76 percent of the global population.</p> <p>The MPI provides a comprehensive and in-depth picture of global poverty – in all its dimensions – and monitors progress towards Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 1 – to end poverty in all its forms. It also provides policymakers with the data to respond to the call of Target 1.2, which is to ‘reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women, and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definition'.</p> <p>The publication “<i>Illuminating Inequalities</i>” previews ongoing research into trends over time for a group of countries including Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Peru. SDG target 10.1 calls for tracking the progress of the bottom 40 percent of the population compared with that of the total population – the publication includes case studies and a detailed analysis of the growth of those furthest behind – the ‘bottom 40%’.</p> <h4 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Key findings</h4> <p>&bull; Across 101 countries, 1.3 billion people—23.1 percent—are multidimensionally poor.<br> &bull; Two-thirds of multidimensionally poor people live in middle-income countries.<br> &bull; There is massive variation in multidimensional poverty within countries. For example, Uganda’s national multidimensional poverty rate (55.1 percent) is similar to the Sub-Saharan Africa average (57.5 percent), but the incidence of multidimensional poverty in Uganda’s provinces ranges from 6.0 percent to 96.3 percent, a range similar to that of national multidimensional poverty rates in Sub-Saharan Africa (6.3–91.9 percent).<br> &bull; Half of the 1.3 billion multidimensionally poor people are children under age 18. A third are children under age 10.<br> &bull; This year’s spotlight on child poverty in South Asia reveals considerable diversity. While 10.7 percent of South Asian girls are out of school and live in a multidimensionally poor household, that average hides variation: in Afghanistan 44.0 percent do.<br> &bull; In South Asia 22.7 percent of children under age 5 experience intrahousehold inequality in deprivation in nutrition (where at least one child in the household is malnourished and at least one child in the household is not). In Pakistan over a third of children under age 5 experience such intrahousehold inequality.<br> &bull; Of 10 selected countries for which changes over time were analysed, India and Cambodia reduced their MPI values the fastest—and they did not leave the poorest groups behind.<br> &bull; There is wide variation across countries in inequality among multidimensionally poor people—that is, in the intensity of poverty experienced by each poor person. For example, Egypt and Paraguay have similar MPI values, but inequality among multidimensionally poor people is considerably higher in Paraguay.<br> &bull; There is little or no association between economic inequality (measured using the Gini coefficient) and the MPI value.<br> &bull; In the 10 selected countries for which changes over time were analysed, deprivations declined faster among the poorest 40 percent of the population than among the total population.</p> <p>Video clip on YouTube (1:06 min) <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=66&amp;v=4WRVZ2E8Ayk">https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=66&amp;v=4WRVZ2E8Ayk</a></p> <p><b>Download</b>: <i>Multidimensional Poverty Index 2019: Illuminating Inequalities</i> <a href="http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/mpi_2019_publication.pdf">http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/mpi_2019_publication.pdf</a></p> <p><small>Based in part on <a href="http://hdr.undp.org/en/2019-MPI">http://hdr.undp.org/en/2019-MPI</a></small></p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" height="66" width="142"></p> <p><small>Last updated 18 September 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Wed, 18 Sep 2019 09:22:46 +0000 admin 996 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/index.php/node/996#comments Education: a Key to Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals http://iefworld.org/index.php/dthor19a <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Education: a Key to Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Author</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item">Thoresen, Victoria</div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-year field--type-integer field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Year</div> <div class="field__item">2019</div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/index.php/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">16. September 2019 - 18:42</span> Mon, 16 Sep 2019 15:42:28 +0000 admin 995 at http://iefworld.org Impacts of Climate Change on Global Fisheries http://iefworld.org/index.php/dmclean2019 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Impacts of Climate Change on Global Fisheries</span> <div class="field field--name-field-author field--type-string-long field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Author</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item">McLean, Elizabeth L.</div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-year field--type-integer field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Year</div> <div class="field__item">2019</div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">16. September 2019 - 18:30</span> Mon, 16 Sep 2019 15:30:15 +0000 admin 994 at http://iefworld.org