International Environment Forum - A Bahá'í inspired organization for environment and sustainability http://iefworld.org/rss.xml en Leaves - August IEF newsletter is available http://iefworld.org/node/255 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Leaves - August IEF newsletter is available</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">16. August 2019 - 8:08</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Read on line: <a href="/newslt122"><strong><em>Leaves</em></strong> 21(8) August 2019</a> light text version with fewer illustrations.<br /> Download as a <a href="/fl/IEF_Leaves190815.pdf">pdf version</a> [780 kb].</p> <table background="/gr/BLEAF1.JPG" style="background-color: rgb(0, 153, 0); width: 100%; height: 55px; text-align: left; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Fri, 16 Aug 2019 05:08:08 +0000 admin 255 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/node/255#comments Climate Change and Land http://iefworld.org/node/991 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Climate Change and Land</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">14. August 2019 - 22:41</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/9" hreflang="en">Climate change</a></div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/17" hreflang="en">Land degradation</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Climate Change and Land</h2> <h3 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">An IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems</h3> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>On 8 August 2019, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued a new special report on climate change and land. This comprehensive report was prepared by 107 experts from 52 countries. It is the first IPCC report in which a majority of the authors are from developing countries. Women also account for 40% of the Coordinating Lead Authors. The author team drew on the contributions of 96 Contributing Authors; included over 7,000 cited references in the report; and considered a total of 28,275 expert and government review comments.</p> <p>In its press release, the IPCC states that Land is already under growing human pressure and climate change is adding to these pressures. At the same time, keeping global warming to well below 2ºC can be achieved only by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from all sectors including land and food.</p> <p>The report shows that food security will be increasingly affected by future climate change through yield declines “ especially in the tropics“ increased prices, reduced nutrient quality, and supply chain disruptions, according to Priyadarshi Shukla, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group III.</p> <p>Different countries will experience different effects, but poor countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean will suffer the most adverse impacts.</p> <p>About 500 million people are already living in areas of desertification, which is an increasing problem with climate change. The following statement in the press release is one of many issues stated in the report that show the interconnectedness in the natural systems: When land is degraded, it becomes less productive, restricting what can be grown and reducing the soil's ability to absorb carbon. This exacerbates climate change, while climate change in turn exacerbates land degradation in many different ways.</p> <p>The report points out that about one third of food produced is lost or wasted and that reducing such waste and changing diets to more plant-based foods will both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and help food security.</p> <p>The following is an edited version of the main headline statements from the IPCC report.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">People, land, and climate in a warming world</h3> <p>Land provides the principal basis for human livelihoods and well-being including the supply of food, freshwater, and multiple other ecosystem services, as well as biodiversity. Human use directly affects more than 70 percent of the global, ice-free land surface. Land also plays an important role in the climate system.</p> <p>Since the pre-industrial period, the land surface air temperature has risen nearly twice as much as the global average temperature. Climate change, including increases in frequency and intensity of extremes, has adversely impacted food security and terrestrial ecosystems as well as contributed to desertification and land degradation in many regions.</p> <p>Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) activities accounted for around 13% of CO2, 44% of methane (CH4), and 82% of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from human activities globally during 2007-2016, representing 23% of total net anthropogenic emissions of GHGs. The natural response of land to human-induced environmental change caused a net sink about the equivalent of 29% in total CO2 emissions; the persistence of the sink is uncertain due to climate change. If emissions associated with pre- and post-production activities in the global food system are included, the emissions are estimated to be 21-37% of total net anthropogenic GHG emissions.</p> <p>Changes in land conditions, either from land-use or climate change, affect global and regional climates. At the regional scale, changing land conditions can reduce or accentuate warming and affect the intensity, frequency and duration of extreme events. The magnitude and direction of these changes vary with location and season.</p> <p>Climate change creates additional stresses on land exacerbating existing risks to livelihoods, biodiversity, human and ecosystem health, infrastructure, and food systems. Increasing impacts on land are projected under all future GHG emission scenarios. Some regions will face higher risks, while some regions will face risks previously not anticipated. Cascading risks with impacts on multiple systems and sectors also vary across regions.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Adaptation and mitigation response options</h3> <p>Many land-related responses that contribute to climate change adaptation and mitigation can also combat desertification and land degradation as well as enhance food security. The potential for land-related responses and the relative emphasis on adaptation and mitigation is context specific: it includes the adaptive capacities of communities and regions. While land-related response options can make important contributions to adaptation and mitigation, there are some barriers to adaptation and limits to their contribution to global mitigation.</p> <p>Most of the response options assessed contribute positively to sustainable development and other societal goals. Many response options can be applied without competing for land and have the potential to provide multiple co-benefits. Thus, a further set of response options has the potential to reduce demand for land, thereby enhancing the potential for other response options to deliver across each of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, combating desertification and land degradation, and enhancing food security.</p> <p>Although most response options can be applied without competing for available land, some can increase demand for land conversion. At the deployment scale of several gigatons of CO2 per year (GtCO2yr-1), this increased demand for land conversion could lead to adverse side effects for adaptation, desertification, land degradation and food security. If applied on a limited share of total land and integrated into sustainably managed landscapes, there will be fewer adverse side-effects and some positive co-benefits can be realised.</p> <p>Many activities for combating desertification can contribute to climate change adaptation with mitigation co-benefits, as well as to halting biodiversity loss with sustainable development as co-benefits to society. Avoiding, reducing, and reversing desertification would enhance soil fertility, increase carbon storage in soils and biomass, and at the same time benefit agricultural productivity and food security. Preventing desertification is preferable to attempting to restore degraded land due to the potential for residual risks and maladaptive outcomes.</p> <p>Sustainable land management, including sustainable forest management, can prevent and reduce land degradation, maintain land productivity, and sometimes reverse the adverse impacts of climate change on land degradation. It can also contribute to mitigation and adaptation. Reducing and reversing land degradation, at scales from individual farms to entire watersheds, can provide cost effective, immediate, and long-term benefits to communities and support several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with co-benefits for adaptation and mitigation. Even with implementation of sustainable land management, limits to adaptation can be exceeded in some situations.</p> <p>Response options throughout the food system, from production to consumption, including food loss and waste, can be deployed and scaled up to advance adaptation and mitigation. The total technical mitigation potential from crop and livestock activities, and agroforestry is estimated as 2.3-9.6 GtCO2e.yr-1 by 2050. The total technical mitigation potential of dietary changes is estimated as 0.7-8 GtCO2e.yr-1 by 2050.</p> <p>Future land use depends, in part, on the desired climate outcome and the portfolio of response options deployed. All assessed modelled pathways that limit warming to 1.5ºC or well below 2°C require land-based mitigation and land-use change, with most pathways requiring different combinations of reforestation, afforestation, reduced deforestation, and bioenergy. A small number of modelled pathways could achieve warming of only 1.5ºC with reduced land conversion and, thus, reduced consequences for desertification, land degradation, and food security.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Enabling response options</h3> <p>Appropriate design of policies, institutions, and governance systems at all scales can contribute to land-related adaptation and mitigation while facilitating the pursuit of climate-adaptive development pathways. Mutually supportive climate and land policies have the potential to save resources, amplify social resilience, support ecological restoration, and foster engagement and collaboration between multiple stakeholders.</p> <p>Policies that operate across the food system (including those that reduce food loss and waste and influence dietary choices) enable more sustainable land-use management, enhanced food security and low emissions trajectories. Such policies can contribute to climate change adaptation and mitigation, reduce land degradation, desertification, poverty, and improve public health. The adoption of sustainable land management and poverty eradication can be enabled by improving access to markets, securing land tenure, factoring environmental costs into food, making payments for ecosystem services, and enhancing local and community collective action.</p> <p>Acknowledging co-benefits and trade-offs when designing land and food policies can overcome barriers to implementation. Strengthened multilevel, hybrid, and cross-sectoral governance, as well as policies developed and adopted in an iterative, coherent, adaptive and flexible manner can maximise co-benefits and minimise trade-offs, given that land management decisions are made from farm level to national scales, and both climate and land policies often range across multiple sectors, departments, and agencies.</p> <p>The effectiveness of decision-making and governance is enhanced by the involvement of local stakeholders (particularly those most vulnerable to climate change such as indigenous peoples and local communities, women, and the poor and marginalised) in the selection, evaluation, implementation and monitoring of policy instruments for land-based climate change adaptation and mitigation. Integration across sectors and scales increases the chance of maximising co-benefits and minimising trade-offs.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Action in the near-term</h3> <p>Actions can be taken in the near-term, based on existing knowledge, to address desertification, land degradation and food security while supporting longer-term responses that enable adaptation and mitigation to climate change. These include actions to build individual and institutional capacity, accelerate knowledge transfer, enhance technology transfer and deployment, enable financial mechanisms, implement early warning systems, undertake risk management and address gaps in implementation and upscaling.</p> <p>Near-term action to address climate change adaptation and mitigation, desertification, land degradation, and food security can bring social, ecological, economic, and development co-benefits. Co-benefits can contribute to poverty eradication and more resilient livelihoods for those who are vulnerable.</p> <p>Rapid reductions in anthropogenic GHG emissions across all sectors following ambitious mitigation pathways reduce negative impacts of climate change on land ecosystems and food systems. Delaying climate mitigation and adaptation responses across sectors would lead to increasingly negative impacts on land and reduce the prospect of sustainable development.</p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>For the complete <i>Summary for Policymakers</i> of the report <i>Climate Change and Land</i>, go here: <a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2019/08/3.-Summary-of-Headline-Statements.pdf">https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2019/08/3.-Summary-of-Headline-…</a> For links to the full report and specific chapters, go here: <a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/srccl-report-download-page/">https://www.ipcc.ch/srccl-report-download-page/</a></p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="66" src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" width="142" /></p> <p><small>Last updated 14 August 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Wed, 14 Aug 2019 19:41:48 +0000 admin 991 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/node/991#comments Restoring forests for climate change http://iefworld.org/node/990 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Restoring forests for climate change</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Arthur Dahl</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">23. July 2019 - 20:42</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><br> <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Restoring Forests for Climate Change</h2> <p style="text-align: center;"><b>Summary by Arthur Dahl</b></p> <p>Beyond phasing out fossil fuels and halting deforestation, restoring forested land at a global scale could help capture atmospheric carbon and mitigate climate change.</p> <p>A new study by Bastin et al. from ETH-Zurich and FAO and published in <i>Science</i> on 5 July 2019 calculates the global tree restoration potential to absorb and store carbon from the atmosphere. They used direct measurements of forest cover to generate a model with spatially explicit maps to show how much additional tree cover could exist outside of existing forests and agricultural and urban land. Such ecosystem restoration on degraded forest lands could support an additional 0.9 billion hectares of continuous forest. This would represent a greater than 25% increase in forested area, including more than 500 billion trees and more than 200 gigatonnes (billion tons) of additional carbon at maturity. Such a change has the potential to cut the atmospheric carbon pool by about 25%. Such efforts to protect and restore native ecosystems would help to counter both climate change and biodiversity loss.</p> <p><img alt="Forest Cover" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="/gr/Forestcover2019.jpg" style="width: 780px; height: 438px;" /></p> <p><b>A map of the potential for tree cover, excluding desert, agricultural and urban areas.</b></p> <p>Human activity has left 300 gigatons of extra carbon in the atmosphere, and is adding about 10 gigatons per year that will keep warming the planet even if we halt further emissions. There are no proven technologies to remove this carbon from the atmosphere at the necessary scale, but trees do this naturally and store carbon both above and below ground. Many areas were stripped of their tree cover by logging, or were cleared for agriculture but later abandoned. Areas that are currently used as urban or agricultural land, or that would naturally be grasslands or wetlands, are not included because these ecosystems themselves store carbon and support biodiversity.</p> <p>Restoring forests on all appropriate land not required for other uses has been estimated in the study to reduce up to two thirds of the excess atmospheric carbon when they reach maturity. At 30 cents a tree, this would cost about $300 billion, much less than alternative approaches. The world's forests would increase by about a third, giving the planet more than a trillion extra trees and 900 million hectares of additional tree canopy, an area about the size of the United States.</p> <p>Most of the land suitable for restoring forests is in six countries: Russia (151 million hectares), USA (103 million hectares), Canada (78 million), Australia (58 million), Brazil (50 million), and China (40 million). But climate change could reduce the amount of land suitable for supporting new forests by a fifth by 2050. While a warmer climate could increase tree cover in northern areas, such as Siberia, it could shrink denser forests in tropical regions. The models of future tree cover have high uncertainty, and do not consider potential loss of forest for pasture or cattle raising, or tropical deforestation by people and wildfires. Deforestation is currently removing about 15 billion trees each year. Nevertheless, the study shows that tree planting and forest restoration, preferably with diverse native species, are obvious actions everyone can take to combat climate change, even if it will take decades to have a real impact.</p> <p><small>Sources: Jean-Francois Bastin, Yelena Finegold, Claude Garcia, Danilo Mollicone, Marcelo Rezende, Devin Routh, Constantin M. Zohner, and Thomas W. Crowther. 2019. The global tree restoration potential. <i>Science</i> 365(6448): 76-79. 5 July 2019. DOI: 10.1126/science.aax0848<br /> Mark Tutton (CNN) 5 July 2019. Restoring forests could capture two-thirds of the carbon humans have added to the atmosphere.</small></p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="66" src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" width="142" /></p> <p><small>Last updated 15 June 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Tue, 23 Jul 2019 17:42:25 +0000 Arthur Dahl 990 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/node/990#comments Unsustainable Agriculture http://iefworld.org/node/989 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Unsustainable Agriculture</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Arthur Dahl</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">22. July 2019 - 23:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div style="text-align: center;">&nbsp; <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Unsustainable Agriculture</h2> <p>Urgency of a rapid transition</p> </div> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>In our justifiable anxiety over fossil fuels and climate change, and the loss of biodiversity, we have perhaps not paid enough attention to the unsustainability of intensive agriculture. The 2019 Sustainable Development Report from SDSN (<a href="https://www.sdgindex.org/reports/sustainable-development-report-2019">https://www.sdgindex.org/reports/sustainable-development-report-2019</a>) says that agriculture destroys forests and biodiversity, squanders water and releases one-quarter of global greenhouse-gas emissions. In total, 78% of world nations are failing on sustainable nitrogen management. At the same time, one-third of food is wasted, 800 million people remain undernourished, 2 billion are deficient in micronutrients, and obesity is on the rise. In addition to the impacts of intensive agriculture at home, high-income countries generate negative impacts through their imports.&nbsp; For example, international demand for palm oil and other commodities fuels tropical deforestation.</p> <p>In the United Kingdom, the RSA Food, Farming and Countryside Commission, established in 2017, has just issued its final report "Our Future on the Land". The report's conclusions are relevant to many other countries as well, so they are worth summarising here.</p> <p>The urgency is the same as for climate change. The actions taken in the next ten years, to stop ecosystems collapse, to recover and regenerate nature and to restore people’s health and wellbeing are now critical. In the UK, agriculture contributes 11 percent of GHG emissions, and is the biggest driver of wildlife loss, with 67 percent decline in the abundance of priority species since 1970 and 13 percent of them now close to extinction. The true cost of cheap, unhealthy food is a spiralling public health crisis and environmental destruction. The UK’s food and farming system must be radically transformed and become sustainable within 10 years.</p> <p>Driven by poor policy and perverse incentives, the food and farming system has become one of the main drivers of the human and ecosystem crisis. From deforestation, loss of wildlife and soil degradation, to widespread pollution and spiralling diet-related ill-health, people and planet have suffered alike. Far from being the sector that nourishes us, and the land on which we all depend, the system has damaged and depleted our precious and finite resources.</p> <p>Decades of policy to produce ever cheaper food has created perverse and detrimental consequences. Farm gate prices are low; and while food in the supermarkets is getting cheaper, the true cost of that policy is simply passed off elsewhere in society – in a degraded environment, spiralling ill-health and impoverished town centres. The UK has the third cheapest food amongst developed countries, but the highest food insecurity in Europe in terms of people being able to afford a healthy diet.</p> <p>Many farmers are at a loss as to the best path forward: Agroecology or high-tech solutions? More intensification, extensification or diversification? And how to disinvest from investments made in good faith? Farmers are open to change but anxious, and locked into their current business models by debt, skills or circumstance.</p> <p>Farmers must be enabled to shift from intensive farming to more organic and wildlife friendly production, raising livestock on grass and growing more nuts and pulses. “Agroecology” practices must be supported – such as organic farming and agroforestry, where trees are combined with crops and livestock such as pigs or egg-laying hens</p> <p>A National Nature Service should be created to give opportunities for young people to work in the countryside and, for example, tackle the climate crisis by planting trees or restoring peatlands.</p> <p>The Commission sets out radical and practical ways for policymakers, business and communities to respond to the challenges.</p> <p>Healthier and life-enhancing diets mean more and better fresh fruit, vegetables, nuts and pulses, less and better meat and dairy, with livestock products coming from climate and nature-friendly production, with zero food waste, and rebuilding our connections with food producers and with each other. Much attention is directed towards the challenge of feeding nine billion people by 2030. But we already produce more than enough for everyone in the world to eat well. Today, it is inefficiently and unsustainably produced, profligately wasted and unfairly distributed.</p> <p>The report makes fifteen recommendations in three areas:</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Healthy food is every body’s business</h3> <p>• Levelling the playing field for a fair food system – good food must become good business<br /> • Committing to grow the UK supply of fruit, vegetables, nuts and pulses, and products from UK sustainable agriculture, and to using them more in everyday foods<br /> • Implementing world-leading public procurement, using this powerful tool to transform the market; schools, hospitals and prisons should buy more sustainably produced British food<br /> • Establishing collaborative community food plans to help inform and implement national food strategies and meet the different needs of communities around the UK<br /> • Reconnecting people and nature to boost health and wellbeing</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Farming is a force for change, unleashing a fourth agricultural revolution driven by public values</h3> <p>• Designing a ten-year transition plan for sustainable, agroecological farming by 2030<br /> • Backing innovation by farmers to unleash a fourth agricultural revolution<br /> • Making sure every farmer can get trusted, independent advice by training a cadre of peer mentors and farmer support networks<br /> • Boosting cooperation and collaboration by extending support for Producer Organisations to all sectors<br /> • Establishing a National Agroecology Development Bank to accelerate a fair and sustainable transition</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">A countryside that works for all, with rural communities that are a powerhouse for a fair and green economy</h3> <p>• Establishing a national land use framework in England inspires cooperation based on the public value of land, mediating and encouraging multipurpose uses<br /> • Investing in the skills and rural infrastructure to underpin the rural economy<br /> • Creating more good work in the regenerative economy<br /> • Developing sustainable solutions to meet rural housing needs<br /> • Establishing a National Nature Service that employs the energy of young people to kickstart the regenerative economy</p> <p><small>Sources: 2019 Sustainable Development Report from SDSN <a href="https://www.sdgindex.org/reports/sustainable-development-report-2019">https://www.sdgindex.org/reports/sustainable-development-report-2019</a><br /> RSA Food, Farming and Countryside Commission (2019) "Our Future on the Land" <a href="https://www.thersa.org/discover/publications-and-articles/reports/future-land">https://www.thersa.org/discover/publications-and-articles/reports/futur…</a><br /> <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jul/16/true-cost-of-cheap-food-is-health-and-climate-crises-says-commission">https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jul/16/true-cost-of-cheap-…</a></small></p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="66" src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" width="142" /></p> <p><small>Last updated 22 July 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-blog-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-blog-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Blog tags</div> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/276" hreflang="en">Agriculture</a></div> </div> </div> Mon, 22 Jul 2019 20:00:15 +0000 Arthur Dahl 989 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/node/989#comments NEW BOOK: In Pursuit of Hope http://iefworld.org/node/986 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">NEW BOOK: In Pursuit of Hope</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/3" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Arthur Dahl</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">16. June 2019 - 0:45</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">In Pursuit of Hope: A Guide for the Seeker</h2> <p>The latest book by IEF President Arthur Dahl was published on 13 June 2019.</p> <p><img alt="In Pursuit of Hope" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="/gr/InPursuit.jpg" style="width: 240px; height: 370px;" /></p> <p><i>In Pursuit of Hope</i> takes the reader on a quest in search of a more purposeful life amidst the environmental, social, economic and spiritual challenges of the 21st century. A metaphorical journey across seven valleys and seven mountain ranges, this is a do-it-yourself guide for anyone who is seeking greater meaning in life. A companion for each step of the way, this book assists you to ask the right questions and provides you with tools to help you along your journey. While it is impossible to know your ultimate destination and what the future will bring, this book shows that you can make a difference, contributing to change within your own life, the lives of those around you, and the planet as a whole.</p> <p>ISBN: 978-0-85398-620-1 Oxford: George Ronald Publisher, soft cover £10.99 / $18.99 204 pages, 216 x 140 mm ( 8.5 x 5.5 ins) Order from <a href="http://www.grbooks.com/george-ronald-publisher-books/social-and-economic-development/inpursuitofhope-1557910160">http://www.grbooks.com/george-ronald-publisher-books/social-and-economi…</a>. A Kindle version is available from Amazon.</p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" height="66" width="142"></p> <p><small>Last updated 17 July 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Sat, 15 Jun 2019 21:45:16 +0000 Arthur Dahl 986 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/node/986#comments IEF member wins Educator's Challenge http://iefworld.org/node/984 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">IEF member wins Educator&#039;s Challenge</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">19. May 2019 - 17:12</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/28" hreflang="en">Education</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>IEF member Joachim Monkelbaan and his partners in the Sustainability Leadership Lab were one of the winners of the Educator's Challenge of the Global Challenges Foundation on 16 May 2019. This is the second time that IEF members have won prizes from the Global Challenges Foundation.</p> <p><img alt="Educator's Prize" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6e44b6ca-5d3c-4684-b61c-835ab39f84f9" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/MonkelbaanGCF190516w.jpg" /></p> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Sun, 19 May 2019 14:12:26 +0000 admin 984 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/node/984#comments IEF and Biodiversity http://iefworld.org/node/981 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">IEF and Biodiversity</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">11. May 2019 - 15:18</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/8" hreflang="en">Biodiversity</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div style="text-align: center;"> <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">IEF and Biodiversity</h2> <p>Launch of a new thematic issue</p> </div> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>The growing crisis in biodiversity has now reached the top of the international agenda alongside climate change, with the recent release of a damning report, the IPBES Global Assessment of Biodiversity. The International Environment Forum has decided to add <a href="https://iefworld.org/biodiversity"><b>Nature and Biodiversity</b></a> as a new issue on which to concentrate, with materials in support of its membership accessible through a new Issue page on its web site. These include a summary of the <a href=" https://iefworld.org/node/977">Global Assessment on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 2019</a> providing the latest consensus scientific information from the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) on the crisis facing nature and its biodiversity on which we all depend; a compilation of Baha'i writings and texts on <a href="https://iefworld.org/cmpbiodiv">Nature and Biodiversity</a> to put this issue in a spiritual context; and a list of <a href="https://iefworld.org/todo_biodiversity">things that everyone can do</a> to help to protect biodiversity. More materials will be added as they become available.</p> <p>Some IEF members have been involved as scientists in this issue for many years, and have even contributed to the IBPES global assessment process. Sylvia Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen organized a workshop recently at Wageningen University in the Netherlands preparing inputs to IPBES on indicators of peoples' relationships to nature, with the participation of Arthur Dahl and other experts, including one of the lead authors of the IPBES report. Sylvia and Austin Bowden-Kerby of Fiji also contributed to an IPBES meeting in New Zealand last year.</p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="66" src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" width="142" /></p> <p><small>Last updated 11 May 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Sat, 11 May 2019 12:18:54 +0000 admin 981 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/node/981#comments Global Assessment on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services http://iefworld.org/node/977 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Global Assessment on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">7. May 2019 - 12:55</span> <div class="field field--name-subjects field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"><a href="/taxonomy/term/8" hreflang="en">Biodiversity</a></div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div style="text-align: center;"> <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Global Assessment on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services</h2> <p><b>Biodiversity is in Crisis<br /> Nature’s Dangerous Decline ‘Unprecedented’<br /> Species Extinction Rates ‘Accelerating’<br /> ‘Transformative changes’ needed to restore and protect nature<br /> Opposition from vested interests can be overcome for public good<br /> 1,000,000 species threatened with extinction</b></p> <p>The headlines are frightening but true</p> </div> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <p>Nature is declining globally at rates unprecedented in human history — and the rate of species extinctions is accelerating, with grave impacts on people around the world now likely, warns a landmark new report from the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the summary of which was approved at the 7th session of the IPBES Plenary, meeting 29 April – 4 May in Paris.</p> <p>“The overwhelming evidence of the IPBES Global Assessment, from a wide range of different fields of knowledge, presents an ominous picture,” said IPBES Chair, Sir Robert Watson. “The health of ecosystems on which we and all other species depend is deteriorating more rapidly than ever. We are eroding the very foundations of our economies, livelihoods, food security, health and quality of life worldwide.”</p> <p>“The Report also tells us that it is not too late to make a difference, but only if we start now at every level from local to global,” he said. “Through ‘transformative change’, nature can still be conserved, restored and used sustainably – this is also key to meeting most other global goals. By transformative change, we mean a fundamental, system-wide reorganization across technological, economic and social factors, including paradigms, goals and values.”</p> <p>“The member States of IPBES Plenary have now acknowledged that, by its very nature, transformative change can expect opposition from those with interests vested in the status quo, but also that such opposition can be overcome for the broader public good,” Watson said.</p> <p>The IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services is the most comprehensive ever completed. It is the first intergovernmental Report of its kind and builds on the landmark Millennium Ecosystem Assessment of 2005, introducing innovative ways of evaluating evidence.</p> <p>Compiled by 145 expert authors from 50 countries over the past three years, with inputs from another 310 contributing authors, the Report assesses changes over the past five decades, providing a comprehensive picture of the relationship between economic development pathways and their impacts on nature. It also offers a range of possible scenarios for the coming decades.</p> <p>Based on the systematic review of about 15,000 scientific and government sources, the Report also draws (for the first time ever at this scale) on indigenous and local knowledge, particularly addressing issues relevant to Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities.</p> <p>“Biodiversity and nature’s contributions to people are our common heritage and humanity’s most important life-supporting ‘safety net’. But our safety net is stretched almost to breaking point,” said Prof. Sandra Díaz (Argentina), who co-chaired the Assessment with Prof. Josef Settele (Germany) and Prof. Eduardo S. Brondízio (Brazil and USA). “The diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems, as well as many fundamental contributions we derive from nature, are declining fast, although we still have the means to ensure a sustainable future for people and the planet.”</p> <p>The Report finds that around 1 million animal and plant species are now threatened with extinction, many within decades, more than ever before in human history.</p> <p>The average abundance of native species in most major land-based habitats has fallen by at least 20%, mostly since 1900. More than 40% of amphibian species, almost 33% of reef-forming corals and more than a third of all marine mammals are threatened. The picture is less clear for insect species, but available evidence supports a tentative estimate of 10% being threatened. At least 680 vertebrate species had been driven to extinction since the 16th century and more than 9% of all domesticated breeds of mammals used for food and agriculture had become extinct by 2016, with at least 1,000 more breeds still threatened.</p> <p>“Ecosystems, species, wild populations, local varieties and breeds of domesticated plants and animals are shrinking, deteriorating or vanishing. The essential, interconnected web of life on Earth is getting smaller and increasingly frayed,” said Prof. Settele. “This loss is a direct result of human activity and constitutes a direct threat to human well-being in all regions of the world.”</p> <p>To increase the policy-relevance of the Report, the assessment’s authors have ranked, for the first time at this scale and based on a thorough analysis of the available evidence, the five direct drivers of change in nature with the largest relative global impacts so far. These culprits are, in descending order: (1) changes in land and sea use; (2) direct exploitation of organisms; (3) climate change; (4) pollution and (5) invasive alien species.</p> <p>The Report notes that, since 1980, greenhouse gas emissions have doubled, raising average global temperatures by at least 0.7 degrees Celsius – with climate change already impacting nature from the level of ecosystems to that of genetics – impacts expected to increase over the coming decades, in some cases surpassing the impact of land and sea use change and other drivers.</p> <p>Despite progress to conserve nature and implement policies, the Report also finds that global goals for conserving and sustainably using nature and achieving sustainability cannot be met by current trajectories, and goals for 2030 and beyond may only be achieved through transformative changes across economic, social, political and technological factors. With good progress on components of only four of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets, it is likely that most will be missed by the 2020 deadline. Current negative trends in biodiversity and ecosystems will undermine progress towards 80% (35 out of 44) of the assessed targets of the Sustainable Development Goals, related to poverty, hunger, health, water, cities, climate, oceans and land (SDGs 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 13, 14 and 15). Loss of biodiversity is therefore shown to be not only an environmental issue, but also a developmental, economic, security, social and moral issue as well.</p> <p>“To better understand and, more importantly, to address the main causes of damage to biodiversity and nature’s contributions to people, we need to understand the history and global interconnection of complex demographic and economic indirect drivers of change, as well as the social values that underpin them,” said Prof. Brondízio. “Key indirect drivers include increased population and per capita consumption; technological innovation, which in some cases has lowered and in other cases increased the damage to nature; and, critically, issues of governance and accountability. A pattern that emerges is one of global interconnectivity and ‘telecoupling’ – with resource extraction and production often occurring in one part of the world to satisfy the needs of distant consumers in other regions.”</p> <p>Other notable findings of the Report include:<br /> • Three-quarters of the land-based environment and about 66% of the marine environment have been significantly altered by human actions. On average these trends have been less severe or avoided in areas held or managed by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities.<br /> • More than a third of the world’s land surface and nearly 75% of freshwater resources are now devoted to crop or livestock production.<br /> • The value of agricultural crop production has increased by about 300% since 1970, raw timber harvest has risen by 45% and approximately 60 billion tons of renewable and nonrenewable resources are now extracted globally every year – having nearly doubled since 1980.<br /> • Land degradation has reduced the productivity of 23% of the global land surface, up to US$577 billion in annual global crops are at risk from pollinator loss and 100-300 million people are at increased risk of floods and hurricanes because of loss of coastal habitats and protection.<br /> • In 2015, 33% of marine fish stocks were being harvested at unsustainable levels; 60% were maximally sustainably fished, with just 7% harvested at levels lower than what can be sustainably fished.<br /> • Urban areas have more than doubled since 1992.<br /> • Plastic pollution has increased tenfold since 1980, 300-400 million tons of heavy metals, solvents, toxic sludge and other wastes from industrial facilities are dumped annually into the world’s waters, and fertilizers entering coastal ecosystems have produced more than 400 ocean ‘dead zones’, totalling more than 245,000 km2 - a combined area greater than that of the United Kingdom.<br /> • Negative trends in nature will continue to 2050 and beyond in all of the policy scenarios explored in the Report, except those that include transformative change – due to the projected impacts of increasing land-use change, exploitation of organisms and climate change, although with significant differences between regions.</p> <p>The Report also presents a wide range of illustrative actions for sustainability and pathways for achieving them across and between sectors such as agriculture, forestry, marine systems, freshwater systems, urban areas, energy, finance and many others. It highlights the importance of, among others, adopting integrated management and cross-sectoral approaches that take into account the trade-offs of food and energy production, infrastructure, freshwater and coastal management, and biodiversity conservation.</p> <p>Also identified as a key element of more sustainable future policies is the evolution of global financial and economic systems to build a global sustainable economy, steering away from the current limited paradigm of economic growth.</p> <p>“IPBES presents the authoritative science, knowledge and the policy options to decision-makers for their consideration,” said IPBES Executive Secretary, Dr. Anne Larigauderie. “We thank the hundreds of experts, from around the world, who have volunteered their time and knowledge to help address the loss of species, ecosystems and genetic diversity – a truly global and generational threat to human well-being.”</p> <p><small>(IPBES press release 6 May 2019)</small></p> <hr /> <h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Global Assessment on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services</h2> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">Key messages from the Summary for Policy-makers</h3> <p>Nature and its vital contributions to people, which together embody biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, are deteriorating worldwide.</p> <p>Nature embodies different concepts for different people, including biodiversity, ecosystems, Mother Earth, systems of life and other analogous concepts. Nature’s contributions to people embody different concepts such as ecosystem goods and services, and nature’s gifts. Both nature and nature’s contributions to people are vital for human existence and good quality of life (human well-being, living in harmony with nature, living well in balance and harmony with Mother Earth, and other analogous concepts).While more food, energy and materials than ever before are now being supplied to people in most places, this is increasingly at the expense of nature’s ability to provide such contributions in the future and frequently undermines nature’s many other contributions, which range from water quality regulation to sense of place. The biosphere, upon which humanity as a whole depends, is being altered to an unparalleled degree across all spatial scales. Biodiversity – the diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems – is declining faster than at any time in human history.</p> <p>A1. Nature is essential for human existence and good quality of life. Most of nature’s contributions to people are not fully replaceable, and some are irreplaceable.</p> <p>A2. Nature’s contributions to people are often distributed unequally across space and time and among different segments of society. There are often trade-offs in the production and use of nature’s contributions.</p> <p>A3. Since 1970, trends in agricultural production, fish harvest, bioenergy production and harvest of materials have increased, but 14 of the 18 categories of contributions of nature that were assessed, mostly regulating and non-material contributions, have declined.</p> <p>A4. Nature across most of the globe has now been significantly altered by multiple human drivers, with the great majority of indicators of ecosystems and biodiversity showing rapid decline.</p> <p>A5. Human actions threaten more species with global extinction now than ever before. An average of around 25 per cent of species in assessed animal and plant groups are threatened (figure SPM.3), suggesting that around 1 million species already face extinction, many within decades, unless action is taken to reduce the intensity of drivers of biodiversity loss.Without such action there will be a further acceleration in the global rate of species extinction, which is already at least tens to hundreds of times higher than it has averaged over the past 10 million years.</p> <p>A6. Globally, local varieties and breeds of domesticated plants and animals are disappearing. This loss of diversity, including genetic diversity, poses a serious risk to global food security by undermining the resilience of many agricultural systems to threats such as pests, pathogens and climate change.</p> <p>A7. Biological communities are becoming more similar to each other in both managed and unmanaged systems within and across regions.</p> <p>A8. Human-induced changes are creating conditions for fast biological evolution - so rapid that its effects can be seen in only a few years or even more quickly. The consequences can be positive or negative for biodiversity and ecosystems, but can create uncertainty about the sustainability of species, ecosystem functions and the delivery of nature’s contributions to people.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">B. Direct and indirect drivers of change have accelerated during the past 50 years</h3> <p>The rate of global change in nature during the past 50 years is unprecedented in human history. The direct drivers of change in nature with the largest global impact have been (starting with those with most impact): changes in land and sea use; direct exploitation of organisms; climate change; pollution; and invasion of alien species. Those five direct drivers result from an array of underlying causes –the indirect drivers of change – which are in turn underpinned by societal values and behaviours that include production and consumption patterns, human population dynamics and trends, trade, technological innovations and local through global governance. The rate of change in the direct and indirect drivers differs among regions and countries.</p> <p>B1. For terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, land-use change has had the largest relative negative impact on nature since 1970, followed by the direct exploitation, in particular overexploitation, of animals, plants and other organisms mainly via harvesting, logging, hunting and fishing. In marine ecosystems, direct exploitation of organisms (mainly fishing) has had the largest relative impact, followed by land/sea-use change.</p> <p>B2. Climate change is a direct driver that is increasingly exacerbating the impact of other drivers on nature and human well-being.</p> <p>B3. Many types of pollution, as well as invasive alien species, are increasing, with negative impacts for nature.</p> <p>B4. In the past 50 years, the human population has doubled, the global economy has grown nearly 4-fold and global trade has grown 10-fold, together driving up the demands for energy and materials.</p> <p>B5. Economic incentives generally have favoured expanding economic activity, and often environmental harm, over conservation or restoration. Incorporating the consideration of the multiple values of ecosystem functions and of nature’s contribution to people into economic incentives has, in the economy, been shown to permit better ecological, economic and social outcomes.</p> <p>B6. Nature managed by indigenous peoples and local communities is under increasing pressure. Nature is generally declining less rapidly in indigenous peoples’ land than in other lands, but is nevertheless declining, as is the knowledge of how to manage it. At least a quarter of the global land area is traditionally owned, managed, used or occupied by indigenous peoples.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">C. Goals for conserving and sustainably using nature and achieving sustainability cannot be met by current trajectories, and goals for 2030 and beyond may only be achieved through transformative changes across economic, social, political and technological factors</h3> <p>Past and ongoing rapid declines in biodiversity, ecosystem functions and many of nature’s contributions to people mean that most international societal and environmental goals, such as those embodied in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, will not be achieved based on current trajectories. These declines will also undermine other goals, such as those specified in the Paris Agreement adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity. The negative trends in biodiversity and ecosystem functions are projected to continue or worsen in many future scenarios in response to indirect drivers such as rapid human population growth, unsustainable production and consumption and associated technological development. In contrast, scenarios and pathways that explore the effects of a low-to-moderate population growth, and transformative changes in production and consumption of energy, food, feed, fibre and water, sustainable use, equitable sharing of the benefits arising from use and nature-friendly climate adaptation and mitigation, will better support the achievement of future societal and environmental objectives.</p> <p>C1. Implementation of policy responses and actions to conserve nature and manage it more sustainably has progressed, yielding positive outcomes relative to scenarios of no intervention, but not sufficiently to stem the direct and indirect drivers of nature deterioration. It is therefore likely that most of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets for 2020 will be missed.</p> <p>C2. Nature is essential for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. However, taking into consideration that the Sustainable Development Goals are integrated and indivisible, as well as implemented nationally, current negative trends in biodiversity and ecosystems will undermine progress towards 80 per cent (35 out of 44) of the assessed targets of goals related to poverty, hunger, health, water, cities, climate, oceans and land (Sustainable Development Goals 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 13, 14, and 15).</p> <p>C3. Areas of the world projected to experience significant negative effects from global changes in climate, biodiversity, ecosystem functions and nature’s contributions to people are also home to large concentrations of indigenous peoples and many of the world’s poorest communities.</p> <p>C4. Except in scenarios that include transformative change, negative trends in nature, ecosystem functions and in many of nature’s contributions to people are projected to continue to 2050 and beyond, due to the projected impacts of increasing land/and sea-use change, exploitation of organisms and climate change.</p> <p>C5. Climate change is projected to become increasingly important as a direct driver of changes in nature and its contributions to people in the next decades. Scenarios show that meeting the Sustainable Development Goals and the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity depends on taking into account climate change impacts in the definition of future goals and objectives.</p> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">D. Nature can be conserved, restored and used sustainably while simultaneously meeting other global societal goals through urgent and concerted efforts fostering transformative change</h3> <p>Societal goals – including those for food, water, energy, health and the achievement of human well-being for all, mitigating and adapting to climate change and conserving and sustainably using nature – can be achieved in sustainable pathways through the rapid and improved deployment of existing policy instruments and new initiatives that more effectively enlist individual and collective action for transformative change. Since current structures often inhibit sustainable development and actually represent the indirect drivers of biodiversity loss, such fundamental, structural change is called for. By its very nature, transformative change can expect opposition from those with interests vested in the status quo, but such opposition can be overcome for the broader public good. If obstacles are overcome, commitment to mutually supportive international goals and targets, supporting actions by indigenous peoples and local communities at the local level, new frameworks for private sector investment and innovation, inclusive and adaptive governance approaches and arrangements, multi-sectoral planning and strategic policy mixes can help to transform the public and private sectors to achieve sustainability at the local, national and global levels.</p> <p>D1. The global environment can be safeguarded through enhanced international cooperation and linked locally relevant measures. The review and renewal of agreed environment-related international goals and targets based on the best available scientific knowledge and the widespread adoption and funding of conservation, ecological restoration and sustainable use actions by all actors, including individuals, are key to this safeguarding.</p> <p>D2. Five main interventions (“levers”) can generate transformative change by tackling the underlying indirect drivers of nature deterioration: (1) incentives and capacity-building; (2) cross-sectoral cooperation; (3) pre-emptive action; (4) decision-making in the context of resilience and uncertainty; and (5) environmental law and implementation.</p> <p>D3. Transformations towards sustainability are more likely when efforts are directed at the following key leverage points, where efforts yield exceptionally large effects (Figure SPM.9): (1) visions of a good life; (2) total consumption and waste; (3) values and action; (4) inequalities; (5) justice and inclusion in conservation; (6) externalities and telecouplings; (7) technology, innovation and investment; and (8) education and knowledge generation and sharing.</p> <p>D4. The character and trajectories of transformation will vary across contexts, with challenges and needs differing, among others, in developing and developed countries. Risks related to inevitable uncertainties and complexities in transformations towards sustainability can be reduced through governance approaches that are integrative, inclusive, informed and adaptive.</p> <p>D5. Recognizing the knowledge, innovations and practices, institutions and values of indigenous peoples and local communities and their inclusion and participation in environmental governance often enhances their quality of life, as well as nature conservation, restoration and sustainable use, which is relevant to broader society. Governance, including customary institutions and management systems, and co-management regimes involving indigenous peoples and local communities, can be an effective way to safeguard nature and its contributions to people, incorporating locally attuned management systems and indigenous and local knowledge.</p> <p>D6. Feeding humanity and enhancing the conservation and sustainable use of nature are complementary and closely interdependent goals that can be advanced through sustainable agricultural, aquacultural and livestock systems, the safeguarding of native species, varieties, breeds and habitats, and ecological restoration.</p> <p>D7. Sustaining and conserving fisheries and marine species and ecosystems can be achieved through a coordinated mix of interventions on land, in freshwater and in the oceans, including multilevel coordination across stakeholders on the use of open oceans.</p> <p>D8. Land-based climate change mitigation activities can be effective and support conservation goals {Table SPM1}. However, the large-scale deployment of bioenergy plantations and afforestation of non-forest ecosystems can come with negative side effects for biodiversity and ecosystem functions.</p> <p>D9. Nature-based solutions can be cost-effective for meeting the Sustainable Development Goals in cities, which are crucial for global sustainability.</p> <p>D10. A key constituent of sustainable pathways is the evolution of global financial and economic systems to build a global sustainable economy, steering away from the current limited paradigm of economic growth.</p> <p><small>(Based on <a href="https://www.ipbes.net/sites/default/files/downloads/summary_for_policymakers_ipbes_global_assessment.pdf">https://www.ipbes.net/sites/default/files/downloads/summary_for_policym…</a> launched 6 May 2019. See the full summary for further details.)</small></p> <hr /> <h3 style=" color: rgb(0, 153, 0);">About the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)</h3> <p>Often described as the “IPCC for biodiversity”, IPBES is an independent intergovernmental body comprising more than 130 member Governments. Established by Governments in 2012, it provides policymakers with objective scientific assessments about the state of knowledge regarding the planet’s biodiversity, ecosystems and the contributions they make to people, as well as the tools and methods to protect and sustainably use these vital natural assets. Its full report of about 1,500 pages will be published later in 2019. For more information about IPBES and its assessments visit <a href="http://www.ipbes.net">www.ipbes.net</a></p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="66" src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" width="142" /></p> <p><small>Last updated 7 May 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Tue, 07 May 2019 09:55:37 +0000 admin 977 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/node/977#comments IEF in the Netherlands http://iefworld.org/node/976 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">IEF in the Netherlands</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">25. April 2019 - 17:00</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2 style="text-align: center; color: rgb(0, 153, 0);"> IEF in the Netherlands</h2> <p>The International Environment Forum organized a lecture at Wageningen University in the Netherlands on 24 April 2019 with IEF President Arthur Dahl speaking on "Global Governance for the 21st Century". The lecture was arranged by Sylvia Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, who teaches at the university, and who also held a seminar on science and religion, and organized a workshop on quantifying the unquantifiable looking at how to measure people's relationship to nature and biodiversity.</p> <p>IEF members Maja Groff, Wendi Momen and Arthur Dahl also participated in the 2019 Justice Conference at the de Poort Conference Centre near Nijmegen on 19-22 April. The theme was "Actions that Heal, Narratives that Reconcile: Actualising Justice and Unity".</p> <p>Arthur Dahl gave the opening plenary on "Responding to the Migrant Crisis: Educating Receiving Communities", and shared another plenary with Maja Groff on "Building Global Unity for Global Governance Reform: Towards 10,000 Conversations". Maja and Arthur also co-lead two workshops on "The Establishment of Peace as a Duty of the Entire Human Race: A Study of the Letter of the Universal House of Justice of 18 January 2019" and "Perspectives on Comprehensive UN Reform and Ensuring a Just International System".</p> <p>There was a beautiful spirit and some very inspiring plenary presentations including representatives of the Black Lives Matter movement in the United States: Professor Funmilola Fagmamila, one of the founders of BLM, and Hawk Newsome, head of the New York Black Lives Matter. Their presentations reflected positive responses to issues of police racial bias and brutality. Other speakers discussed the importance of truth in healing and reconciliation, the problems with "us" versus "them" narratives, and rewriting narratives from his-stories to her-stories to our-stories. [<a href="http://yabaha.net/dahl/travel/t2019/Justice/JusticeConference.html">photo album<a />]</p> <hr style="width: 100%; height: 2px;" /> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><img src="/gr/IEFlogo5.gif" height="66" width="142"></p> <p><small>Last updated 9 May 2019</small></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-field-comments field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> Thu, 25 Apr 2019 14:00:04 +0000 admin 976 at http://iefworld.org http://iefworld.org/node/976#comments 23rd IEF Annual Conference http://iefworld.org/conf23 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">23rd IEF Annual Conference</span> <div class="field field--name-field-dates field--type-string-long field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Dates</div> <div class="field__item">2019 April 5-14</div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-place field--type-string-long field--label-inline"> <div class="field__label">Place</div> <div class="field__item">Auckland and Rotorua, New Zealand</div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/1" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">admin</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">14. April 2019 - 14:29</span> Sun, 14 Apr 2019 11:29:02 +0000 admin 965 at http://iefworld.org